# Cause and Effect – Logical Reasoning, Statements, Independent Causes (Aptitude, Examples, Answer, Explanation)

## Questions and Solved Examples on Cause and Effect

Directions for questions 1 to 15: In each of the following questions, two statements numbered I and II are given. There may be 'Cause and Effect' relationship between the two statements. These two statements may be the effect of the same cause or independent cause, without having any relationship. Read both the statements in each question and mark your answer as:
A. If statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect.
B. If Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect.
C. If both the statements I and II are independent causes.
D. If both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes and
E. If both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.

Q.1: (I) For the previous few months, the cost of gasoline and diesel on the domestic market has not altered.
(II) In the past several months, there has been a significant increase in the price of crude oil on the global market.
Answer: The correct answer is D.
Explanation: The domestic market's stagnating gasoline and diesel prices and the global market's rise in those prices must be supported by independent causes.

Q.2: (I) The prices of vegetables have been increased considerably during this summer.
(II) There is tremendous increase in the temperature during this summer thereby damaging crops greatly.
Answer: The correct answer is B.
Explanation: Clearly, damage to crops due to high temperature may have resulted in a short supply of vegetables and hence an increase in their prices.

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Q.3: (I) The government has set professional course costs that are significantly lower than those charged the previous year for those courses given by unaided institutions.
(II) The hefty tuition costs levied by the unassisted colleges sparked a serious uprising by the parents of prospective students last year.
Answer: The correct answer is B.
Explanation: The government intervened and fixed the prices at a more accessible level as a result of the parent's protests about the institution's exorbitant rates.

Q.4: (I) The police authority has recently caught a group of house breakers.
(II) The citizens group in the locality have started night vigil in the area.
Answer: The correct answer is E.
Explanation: Both the statements are clearly backed by a common cause, which is clearly an increase in the number of thefts in the locality.

Q.5: (I) The university authority has instructed all the colleges under its jurisdiction to ban use of all phones inside the college premises.
(II) Majority, of the teachers of the colleges signed a joint petition to the university complaining the disturbances caused by cell phone ringtones inside the classrooms.
Answer: The correct answer is B.
Explanation: Clearly, the university's decision came as a sequel to the complaint received by it from the college teachers against use of mobile phones in the college premises

Q.6: (I) A few tiny banks in the nation are now subject to regulations from the Reserve Bank of India.
(II) The smaller banks in India's private and cooperative sectors are unable to compete with the larger ones in the public sector.
Answer: The correct answer is B.
Explanation: A crucial complication that the Reserve Bank must investigate in the small bank's incapacity to compete with the larger ones and provide security and excellent customer service.

Q.7: (I) The performance of most of the students in final exam of class X in the schools run by the Government was excellent.
(II) Many teachers of the Government schools left the school and joined private schools.
Answer: The correct answer is D.
Explanation: The students of government schools performing well in the examinations and the teachers of government schools leaving their jobs to join private schools are two separate situations that must have been triggered by independent causes.

Q.8: (I) Majority of the citizens in the locality belong to higher income group.
(II) if The sales in the local super market are comparatively much higher than in other localities.
Answer: The correct answer is B.
Explanation: The comparatively higher sales in a particular locality are indicative of the high paying capacity of the residents of that locality.

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Q.9: (I) For the majority of the week, all the local schools had to be closed.
(II) Many parents have taken their kids out of the neighborhood schools.
Answer: The correct answer is D.
Explanation: The decision to close the schools for a week and the parent's decision to withdraw their children from the neighborhood schools are independent concerns that must have been brought on by various individual causes.

Q.10: (I) There is considerable reduction in the number of people affected by water-borne diseases in City A during this rainy season.
(II) The government has opened four new civil hospitals in City A in the beginning of the year.
Answer: The correct answer is C.
Explanation: The given statements are self-sufficient and depict independent events.

Q.11: (I) The literacy rate in the district has been increasing for the last four years.
(II) The district administration has conducted extensive training programme for the S workers involved in the literacy drive.
Answer: The correct answer is B.
Explanation: Clearly, the increase in the literacy rate may be attributed directly to the stringent effort of the district administration in this direction.

Q.12: (I) Most of the steel producing companies in the country have made considerable profit during the last financial year.
(II) Many Asian countries have been importing huge quantities of steel from India.
Answer: The correct answer is B.
Explanation: The increase in demand of steel from other countries is bound to enhance business and hence profitability of steel companies in India.

Q.13: (I) Rural and semi-urban areas in the country have been suffering  due to load shedding for quite some time.
(II) If the Government is not able to overcome the power crisis, load shedding will be extended even to the urban areas.
Answer: The correct answer is E.
Explanation: The facts given in both the statements are clearly the result of acute power shortage.

Q.14: (I) The employees of the biggest bank in the country have given an indefinite strike call starting from third of the next month.
(II) The employees of the Central Government have withdrawn their week long demonstrations.
Answer: The correct answer is D.
Explanation: The employees of a bank going on strike and the government employees calling off their protest seem to be two independent events that might have been triggered by individual causes.

Q.15: (I) The school authority has asked the X Std. students to attend special classes to be conducted on Sundays.
(II) The parents of the X Std. students have withdrawn their wards from attending private tuitions conducted on Sundays.
Answer: The correct answer is A.
Explanation: It seems quite evident that the parents have instructed their wards to abstain from private tuitions on Sundays and attend special classes organised by the school.