# Syllogism – Statements, Conclusions, Venn Diagram (Aptitude, Examples, Answer, Explanation)

## Syllogism (Basics, Questions and Solved Examples)

### What is Syllogism?

Syllogism is a “Greek” word that means inference or deduction. As such inferences are based on logic, then there inferences that are called logical deduction. These deductions are based on propositions or premises. Different types of questions covered here are two statements along with two conclusions. The statements and conclusions may seem to be illogical, but while solving questions related to syllogism, candidates must assume the given statements to be 100% true.

Various types of Syllogism based logical reasoning questions are being asked in different government examinations, which makes them the most important sections under the verbal reasoning section. Syllogism checks the basic aptitude and ability of a candidate to derive inferences from given statements using step-by-step methods of solving problems.

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## Practice Questions : For Syllogism

In each of the following questions two statements are given and these statements are followed by two conclusions numbered (1) and (2). You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

Question 1:
Statements: Some actors are singers.
All the singers are dancers.

Conclusions:

1. Some actors are dancers.
2. No singer is actor.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow

Explanation: From the Venn Diagram,
Some actors are dancers: Yes
No singer is actor: No
Only 1 conclusion follows, i.e. Option A

Question 2:
Statements: All the harmoniums are instruments.
All the instruments are flutes.

Conclusions:

1. All the flutes are instruments.
2. All the harmoniums are flutes.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow

Explanation: From the Venn Diagram,
All the flutes are instruments: False.
All harmoniums are flutes: True.
Therefore, only conclusion 2 is True.

Question 3:
Statements: Some mangoes are yellow.
Some tixo are mangoes.

Conclusions:

1. Some mangoes are green.
2. Tixo is a yellow.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow

Explanation: From the Venn Diagram,
Some mangoes are green: No
Tixo is a yellow: Maybe or may not be
Neither of the conclusions follow, hence Option D.

Question 4:
Statements: Some ants are parrots.
All the parrots are apples.

Conclusions:

1. All the apples are parrots.
2. Some ants are apples.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow

Explanation: From the Venn Diagram,
All apples are parrots: False.
Some ants are apples: True.
Therefore, only 2nd conclusion is True.

Question 5:
Statements: Some papers are pens.
All the pencils are pens.

Conclusions:

1. Some pens are pencils.
2. Some pens are papers.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow

Explanation: From the Venn Diagram,
Some pens are pencils: True
Some pens are papers: True
Therefore, both the conclusions are True.

Question 6:
Statements: All the actors are girls.
All the girls are beautiful.

Conclusions:

1. All the actors are beautiful.
2. Some girls are actors.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow

Explanation: From the Venn Diagram,
All actresses are beautiful: True
Some girls are actresses: True
Hence, both the conclusion are True.

Question 7:
Statements: All the windows are doors.
No door is a wall.

Conclusions:

1. Some windows are walls.
2. No wall is a door.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow

Explanation: From the Venn Diagram,
Some windows are walls: False
No wall is a door: True
Therefore, only conclusion 2 is True.

Question 8:
Statements: All cups are books.
All books are shirts.

Conclusions:

1. Some cups are not shirts.
2. Some shirts are cups.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow

Explanation: From the Venn Diagram,
Some cups are not shirts: False.
Some shirts are cups: True.
Therefore, only conclusion 2 is True.

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Question 9:
Statements: Some cows are crows.
Some crows are elephants.

Conclusions:

1. Some cows are elephants.
2. All crows are elephants.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow

Explanation: From the Venn Diagram,
Some cows are elephants: No
All crows are elephants: Maybe or may not be
Neither of the conclusions follow, hence Option D.

Question 10:
Statements: All the pencils are pens.
All the pens are inks.

Conclusions:

1. All the pencils are inks.
2. Some inks are pencils.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow

Explanation: From the Venn Diagram,
All the pencils are inks: True
Some inks are pencils: True
Hence, both the conclusion are True.

Question 11:
Statements: Some dogs are bats.
Some bats are cats.

Conclusions:

1. Some dogs are cats.
2. Some cats are dogs.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow

Explanation: From the Venn Diagram,
Some dogs are cats: No
Some cats are dogs: Maybe or may not be
Neither of the conclusions follow, hence Option D.

Question 12:
Statements: All the trucks are flies.
Some scooters are flies.

Conclusions:

1. All the trucks are scooters.
2. Some scooters are trucks.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow

Explanation: From the Venn Diagram,
All the trucks are scooters: No
Some scooters are trucks: Maybe or may not be
Neither of the conclusions follow, hence Option D.

Question 13:
Statements: All buildings are chalks.
No chalk is toffee.

Conclusions:

1. No building is toffee
2. All chalks are buildings.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow

Explanation: From the Venn Diagram,
we can conclude that no building is a toffee.
Hence, it satisfies the 1 conclusion only.

Question 14:
Statements: All cars are cats.
All fans are cats.

Conclusions:

1. All cars are fans.
2. Some fans are cars.
A) Only (1) conclusion follows
B) Only (2) conclusion follows
C) Either (1) or (2) follows
D) Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E) Both (1) and (2) follow