Cloze Test – Old Pattern and New Pattern of Cloze Test (English, Study Material, Exam Preparation, Examples, Question, Answer and Explanation)

Cloze Test

A Cloze Test or Cloze Reading Test is an exercise where the candidate is provided with a paragraph or passage that has certain missing words or blanks which have to be filled with the right words from the given choices. Sometimes the blanks will have a word in the brackets accompanying it and the candidate will be asked to pick a word meaning similar to the word in the brackets.

The Cloze test is a very important section when it comes to General English. So, questions are duly expected from it in many government exams. It is mandatory in Banks and Insurance exams including IBPS, PO, CLERK, SO and other exams like SSC, CDS, RRB and Defence Exams.

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Types of Cloze Test in English

As per the examination point of view, we can broadly classify the cloze test into two categories:

Old Pattern of Cloze Test: Conventional

You will be given a passage where there will be 5-10 blanks, and below the passage, there will be four-five options will be given for each blank. We have to choose the word that fits each blank appropriately in the context of the passage, and mark the corresponding answer.

Example 1 - Directions: Below, a passage is given with five blanks labelled (A)-(E). Below the passage, five options are given for each blank. Choose the word that fits each blank appropriately in the context of the passage, and mark the corresponding answer.

The origin of the caste system in India is ___(A)___ to the functional division of labour. The population was divided into classes on the basis of functions or occupations of particular families and groups. However, in the course of time, these divisions between various sections of the society became very ___(B)___. It seems that, in the former times, the caste system gave ___(C)___ for specialization and distributed the work in a way that promoted professional skill and expertise. It helped the various art and industries to ___(D)___. Even the least talented person had the opportunity ___(E)___ his living.

Question 1: Which word comes in the blank labelled A?
A) Opulent
B) Attributed
C) Effusive
D) Yearning
E) Derived

Answer: Option B
Explanation: The blank should be filled with a verb. The appropriate word is ‘attributed’ which means ‘regarded something as being caused by.’ The rest of the words are irrelevant as they mean:
Opulent: ostentatiously costly and luxurious.
Effusive: showing or expressing gratitude, pleasure, or approval in an unrestrained or heartfelt manner.
Yearning: a feeling of intense longing for something.
Derived: being, possessing, or marked by a character

Question 2: Which word comes in the blank labelled B?
A) Rigid
B) Untenable
C) Attest
D) Abrasion
E) Defiance

Answer: Option A
Explanation: The blank should be filled with an adjective. The appropriate word is ‘rigid’ which means ‘unable to bend or be forced out of shape; not flexible.’ The rest of the words are irrelevant as they mean:
Untenable: not able to be maintained or defended against attack or objection
Attest: provide or serve as clear evidence of
Abrasion: the process of scraping or wearing something away
Defiance: the act or an instance of defying or challenging.

Question 3: Which word comes in the blank labelled C?
A) Articulate
B) Arcane
C) Earnest
D) Scope
E) Idea

Answer: Option D
Explanation: The blank should be filled with a noun. The appropriate word is ‘scope’ which means ‘the opportunity or possibility to do or deal with something.’ The rest of the words are irrelevant as they mean:
Articulate: having or showing the ability to speak fluently and coherently.
Arcane: understood by few; mysterious or secret.
Earnest: resulting from or showing sincere and intense conviction.

Question 4: Which word comes in the blank labelled D?
A) Generic
B) Brisk
C) Flourish
D) Draught
E) Dearth

Answer: Option C
Explanation: The blank should be filled with a verb. The appropriate word is ‘flourish’ which means ‘grow or develop in a healthy or vigorous way.’ The rest of the words are irrelevant as they mean:
Generic: characteristic of or relating to a class or group of things; not specific.
Brisk: active and energetic.
Draught: a current of cool air in a room or other confined space.
Dearth: an inadequate supply:Lack

Question 5: Which word comes in the blank labelled E?
A) Earn
B) Iota
C) Tardy
D) Petty
E) Gaudy

Answer: Option A
Explanation: The blank should be filled with a verb. The appropriate word is ‘earn’ which means ‘obtain (money) in return for labour or services.’ The rest of the words are irrelevant as they mean:
Iota: an extremely small amount.
Tardy: delaying or delayed beyond the right or expected time; late.
Petty: of little importance; trivial.
Gaudy: ostentatiously or tastelessly ornamented

New Pattern of Cloze Test

When it comes to the new pattern there is a slight change that along with each blank in the passage, a word is given in brackets. We need to find the correct form of the given word that fits into the passage. Sometimes the provided word itself is the correct form of the word for the passage.

Example 2 - Directions: Provide the appropriate tense form of the verbs in brackets.

Joe was very unhappy with her standard of living. Her dad went bankrupt a few years ago and hence her family was poor. All her clothes were shabby and old and they _______ (look) like they would _______ (tear) any moment. She _______ (envy) the girls who wore pretty frocks to school. They would also bring tasty snacks to _______ (eat) during the break while she always had to make do with plain bread and butter. One day she _______ (bawl) her eyes out in her room because she couldn’t take it anymore when suddenly her mother entered.

Question 1: Which is the correct form of the verb that should come in blank 1?
A) looked
B) had looked
C) looks
D) will look
E) will be looking

Answer: Option B
Explanation: We have to use the simple past tense of the verb ‘look’ which is ‘looked’. The story is written in the past tense. Notice that verbs like ‘was’ and ‘were’ are used before. For a story written in the past tense, most of the verbs will be in the simple past tense (verbs can also take other versions of the past tense). The simple past tense shows that you are talking about something that has already happened. Unlike the past continuous tense, which is used to talk about past events that happened over a period of time, the simple past tense emphasizes that the action is finished. The other options are wrong as they make the sentence grammatically incorrect.

Question 2: Which is the correct form of the verb that should come in blank 2?
A) tore
B) had torn
C) tear
D) tears
E) will tore

Answer: Option C
Explanation: We have to use the base form of the verb ‘tear’ which is ‘tear’ itself. Notice that the modal/auxiliary verb ‘would’ is used before the blank. ‘Would’ is followed by the main verb. The main verb stays in its base form. The main verb that is used with ‘would’ does not change form according to the subject.

Question 3: Which is the correct form of the verb that should come in blank 3?
A) envies
B) envied
C) had been envied
D) Envy
E) will envy

Answer: Option B
Explanation: We have to use the simple past tense of the verb ‘envy’ which is ‘envied’. The story is written in the past tense. Notice that verbs like ‘was’ and ‘were’ are used before. For a story written in the past tense, most of the verbs will be in simple past (verbs can also take other versions of the past tense). The simple past tense shows that you are talking about something that has already happened. Unlike the past continuous tense, which is used to talk about past events that happened over a period of time, the simple past tense emphasizes that the action is finished. The other options are wrong as they make the sentence grammatically incorrect.

Question 4: Which is the correct form of the verb that should come in blank 4?
A) had eaten
B) was eating
C) eats
D) eat
E) will eat

Answer: Option D
Explanation: We have to use the base form of the verb ‘eat’ which is ‘eat’ itself. Notice that there is ‘to’ before the blank. The base form of a verb appears in the infinitive form. The infinitive form of a verb is the verb in its basic form. It is the version of the verb which will appear in the dictionary. The infinitive form of a verb is usually preceded by to (e.g., to run, to dance, to think). The other options are wrong as they make the sentence grammatically incorrect.

Question 5: Which is the correct form of the verb that should come in blank 5?
A) was bawling
B) bawls
C) had bawled
D) is bawling
E) will be bawling

Answer: Option A
Explanation: We have to use the past continuous tense of the verb ‘bawl’ which is ‘was bawling’. The past continuous tense refers to a continuing action or state that was happening at some point in the Past. It is formed by combining the past tense of to be (i.e., was/were) with the verb’s present participle (-ing word). It can also be used to describe something that was happening continuously in the past when another action interrupted it. Eg: I was talking to Jessica when he suddenly showed up.

Practice Questions : For Cloze Test

Example 3 - Directions: In the passage given below words are given in bold, each followed by a number given in the brackets. Every word in bold has five alternatives. Find the word which best suits the place. If the given word suits the blank, mark 'no correction/change required' as the answer.

It took the Delhi High Court to set right last week a largely inexplicable instance of official gender equality (Q1): it ruled that the Indian Navy must grant permanent commission to women as well, as the Army and the Air Force had to do following a 2010 order by a different bench of the same court. Somehow (Q2) now, women could qualify only for the Navy’s Short Service Commission with tenure of up to 14 years; this made them ineligible for pension and often unable to find other work they were qualified for, virtually midway through their working lives. Following the latest ruling, women who qualify (Q3) for the permanent commission will be able to work until the age of 54, as their male counterparts do. The 19 women who filed plea (Q4) before the court argued that they had received the same training as their male counterparts and worked for a comparable number of years in different departments, but could go no further for the only reason that they were women. The High Court rightly ruled that it could not support any provision that would restrain the professional increment (Q5) of women. Grant of the permanent commission would allow women to rise in rank along with the men, and gain pay parity.

Question 1: Choose the correct answer from the given options to fill in the blanks which are numbered.
  1. Bias
  2. Disturbance
  3. Discrimination
  4. Rights
  5. No changes required
Answer: Option C
Explanation: All the options appear to fit in but only after reading the following statement can the correct answer be predicted. Since it talks of granting permission to women for the Indian Navy, the word discrimination fits well.

The answer can also be inferred from the clue ‘set right last week’. This helps us understand that something was out of order which the government had to make right, hence the context is negative.

Question 2: Choose the correct answer from the given options to fill in the blanks which are numbered.
  1. Until
  2. Upto
  3. For
  4. Since
  5. No changes required
Answer: Option A
Explanation: All the given options fit with the following word 'now'. The correct answer can only be chosen after reading the entire sentence. Among the given options, 'Until' fits the sentence contextually as well as grammatically.

Question 3: Choose the correct answer from the given options to fill in the blanks which are numbered.
  1. Fizzle
  2. Aspire
  3. Condone
  4. Prepare
  5. No changes required
Answer: Option E
Explanation: 'Qualify', 'prepare' and 'aspire' seem to be apt. Prepare means to be ready, aspire means to aim/hope while qualify means to achieve something. Here, it refers to the achievement of a position in the permanent commission.

Question 4: Choose the correct answer from the given options to fill in the blanks which are numbered.
  1. Case
  2. Complaint
  3. Request
  4. Petitions
  5. No changes required
Answer: Option D
Explanation: This is a tricky question. All the responses seem to be suitable. 'Case' refers to a matter brought before a court. 'Complaint' is a statement of disagreement. 'Plea' is a begging request. 'Petition' is an application for appeal. 'Request' also means to appeal. 'Petition' is a contextually more suitable response and includes the meaning of case, complaint as well as plea. Between, request and petition, 'petition' is a more suitable word related to court.

Question 5: Choose the correct answer from the given options to fill in the blanks which are numbered.
  1. Advancement
  2. Proceeding
  3. Abatement
  4. Acceleration
  5. No changes required
Answer: Option A
Explanation: Advancement fits the sentence most appropriately. The sentence talks about women achieving status equal to men, hence advancement is the most suitable response.

Example 4 - Direction: Given below is a passage divided into VI segments. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

The UK is the world’s fifth-largest economy, it contains many areas of immense wealth, its capital is a leading centre of global finance, its entrepreneurs are innovation and agile, and despite the current political turmoil, it has a system of government that rightly remains the envy of much of the world. (I) It thus seems patently unjust and __(A)__ to British values that so many people are living in poverty. (II) This is obvious (1) to anyone who opens their eyes to see the deep (2) growth in food banks and the queues waiting outside them, the people sleeping rough in the streets, the growth of homelessness, the sense of immense (3) despair that leads even the Government to appoint a Minister for suicide prevention (4) and civil society to report on levels of loneliness and isolation. (III) And local __(B)__, especially in England, which performs vital roles in providing a real social safety net have been gutted by a series of government policies. (IV) Libraries have closed in record numbers, community and youth centres have been shrunk and are underfunded, public spaces and buildings including parks and recreation centres have been sold off. (V) While the labor and housing markets provide the crucial __(C)__, the focus of this report is on the contribution made by social security and related policies. (VI)

Question 1: The first sentence (I) of the passage has been divided into four parts in the given options. There may or may not be an error in one of the parts. Choose the part which has an error in it as your answer. If there is no error, then choose option (E), “No error” as your answer.
  1. The UK is the world’s fifth-largest economy, it contains
  2. many areas of immense wealth, its capital is a leading centre of global finance,
  3. its entrepreneurs are innovation and agile, and
  4. despite the current political turmoil, it has a system of government that rightly remains the envy of much of the world
  5. No error
Answer: Option C
Explanation: The error lies in the third part of the sentence. “Entrepreneurs” is a noun and signifies a group of people. People can be “innovative” and not “innovation”. Thus, option C is the correct answer.

Question 2: Which of the following word given in the options should fill the blank marked as (A) in the second segment (II) of the passage, to make it grammatically and contextually meaningful? Note that the word should also fill both the blanks of the following two sentences to make them contextually meaningful.
(i) _________ to the popular myth, the majority of accidents are not caused by speeding or drunkenness.
(ii) The villagers expressed regret that their habitations lacked road connectivity and other basic amenities ________ to the government’s tall claims.
  1. Complying
  2. Contrary
  3. Complimentary
  4. Cursory
  5. Commissioning
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
Complimentary: approving,
Cursory: casual,
Commissioning: authorizing.

In the given question, we need to find a word that fits into all three blanks. In the given passage, the sentence under concern is followed by one which appreciates the economy of the UK. From the second sentence, it can be gathered that the situation of poverty is considered unjust for a prosperous nation like the U.K. The word in the blank must signify that the condition is considered something with reference to British values. Certainly, poverty will be considered a blot on the legacy of the nation.

Thus, “contrary”, which means “in contrast to” is the best-fit word for the blank. “Complying” and “complementary” would convey a meaning opposite to what is required. The words given in the last two options will convey an appropriate sense. “Contrary” fits in both the blanks of the given two sentences. In first, it means that what is usually believed with reference to accidents does not actually hold true. In the second sentence, it means that opposed to the government’s promises, the habitations of the villagers lacked road connectivity and other basic amenities.

Question 3: The third segment (III) in the given passage has four words given in bold. Of these, the positions of the two words may be incorrect and need to be exchanged to make the sentence correct. Find the two words which need to be exchanged.
  1. 1-2
  2. 1-3
  3. 1-4
  4. 3-4
  5. 2-3
Answer: Option E
Explanation: “Deep, as well as “immense”,” are adjectives. In the given sentence, it must be assured that these adjectives modify the correct noun. Though the term “immense despair” may sound right, the term “deep growth” is incorrect. Thus, the positions of the two adjectives must be altered to make the sentence correct. “Immense growth” and “deep despair” are correct terms. So, option E is the correct answer.

Question 4: With respect to the context of the passage, which of the following can be inferred from the italicized sentence mentioned in the fifth segment (V) of the passage?
  1. The closure of the various institutions of society will gradually have an adverse effect on the physical health of growing children.
  2. Public welfare institutions have been shut down, thus causing a setback to the social health of the citizens.
  3. In order to revive these institutions in the future, the government will have to invest a lot of capital and promote schemes to encourage people to social participation.
  4. The closure of the institutions indicates that Britain is undergoing an economic crisis.
  5. None of these
Answer: Option B
Explanation: Note that we have to draw an inference from the concerned sentence while keeping the context of the passage in mind. The sentence preceding the concerned sentence states that local authorities in England, which perform vital roles in providing a real social safety net, have been removed by a series of government policies. This implies that the social fabric has been adversely affected by the removal of certain local authorities. The concerned sentence further states how institutions that are necessary for the social and recreational growth of an individual, have been shut down. This implies that the course of action will adversely affect the social health of the people. Thus, option B is the correct answer.

The statement mentioned in option A carries a very narrow sense and cannot be inferred from the sentence. Statement C is out of context as the passage puts forth the problem and does not discuss how the institutions can be revived. Statement D is also not an appropriate inference as the author does not intertwine the problem with an economic crisis, but sees it as a failure of the government.

Question 5: Which of the following word given in the options should fill the blank marked as (C) in the sixth segment (VI) of the passage, to make it grammatically and contextually meaningful. Note that the word should also fill both the blanks of the following two sentences to make them contextually meaningful.
(i) Settled into a ________ of wooded hills, was the little log cabin.
(ii) The conference begins this week against a _______ of unmitigated gloom.
  1. Backdrop
  2. Surrounding
  3. Precursor
  4. Profusion
  5. Both A and B
Answer: Option A
Explanation:
Backdrop: the setting or background for a scene, event, or situation; lies behind or beyond; serves as a background to,
Precursor: a person or thing that comes before another of the same kind, the predecessor,
Profusion: an abundance or large quantity of something.

Let us look at the first sentence given above. It indicates that the hills acted as a part of the surrounding where the little log cabin was situated. So, “background” can fit here the best. “Surrounding” is quite inappropriate here. The second sentence implies that the “unmitigated gloom” acts as the pretext, in reference to which the conference begins.

A similar meaning is conveyed by segment VI of the passage. It implies that though the labour and housing markets provide a background to the issue, the focus of the report is on the contribution made by social security and related policies. Thus, option A is the correct answer.

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