General Science Chemistry Questions and Answers – Nobel Prize Winners in Chemistry (updated)

General Science Questions and Answers – Chemistry

  • Which substance is found in three states (solid, liquid and gas) in nature? – H2O
  • "Every substance in the world is made up of very tiny particles." Who said this first? – Kanada
  • Which parent particles are located in the same number of atoms? – Electrons and Protons
  • Who first determined the charge of the electron successfully? – Millikan
  • Whose presence did Rutherford's scattering test prove? – Nucleus in Atoms
  • Who first discovered the wave nature of the electron? – De Broglie
  • According to Dalton's atomic theory, which smallest particle can live independently? – Atom
  • Which nuclear particle has no mass and no charge, but spin? – Neutrino
  • What is the mass number of an element whose atom has 2 protons, 2 neutrons and 2 electrons? – 4
  • What is the layout of a molecular orbit? – Magnetic Quantum Number
  • What happens in the nucleus of a single ionized carbon atom? – 6 protons and 6 neutrons
  • If two electrons are in the same cell, what is found in them? – Reverse Rotation
  • Carbon has atomic number 6 and atomic weight 12. How many protons are there in its nucleus? – 6
  • Who discovered alpha and beta rays? – Rutherford
  • Whose radiation capacity is highest among the radiation from the nucleus? – Gamma rays
  • After which all radioactive substances are decayed and finally converted? – Lead
  • Which radioactive element is named after the country of its explorer? – Polonium
  • Which particle is needed to continue the continuous process of uranium fragment? – Neutron
  • Which type of reaction produces the most harmful radiation? – Fission Reaction
  • The difference between isotopes of an element is due to the presence of a different; different number? – Neutron

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  • Which isotopes are used in radioactive age notation to determine the age of rocks? – Uranium
  • Blood cancer; Which is the radioisotope used to control leukemia? – Cobalt–60
  • Which substance is used as both oxidizer and refractory? – Sodium Nitrate
  • Which is used for testing acid and incineration? – Litmus Paper
  • Which gases react with all the acid metals? – Hydrogen
  • What is the blood level of a normal person? – 7.35–7.45
  • Who first said 'Hydrogen is an essential ingredient of all acids'? – Humphry Davy
  • Under what circumstances does a real gas behave like an ideal gas? – Low pressure and high temperature
  • Which substance acts as an inhibitor for iron (the catalyst) in the Haber method of ammonia? – CO
  • Which enzyme converts glucose into alcohol? – Zymase
  • Which element is called Avara element in chemistry? – Hydrogen
  • Which element is available in maximum quantity in the universe? – Hydrogen
  • Which of the following is commonly called 'fuel of the future'? – Hydrogen
  • Which gas is used in the manufacture of vegetable ghee? – Hydrogen
  • By what process can cooking oil be converted into 'vegetable ghee'? – By Hydrogenation
  • In the cooking cooking LPG gas cylinders, what is the gas filled with odor? – Mercaptane
  • LPG gas mainly consists of? – Butane
  • Water gas is a mixture of which two gases? – CO + H2
  • Among the different varieties of coal, which one has the highest percentage of carbon? – Anthracite
  • Why is sodium bicarbonate used as a fire extinguisher? – It produces CO2 gas by obtaining heat of fire.
  • Which scientist first created the periodic table? – Dmitri Mendeleev
  • Who propounded the modern periodic law? – Henry Moseley
  • On which one is the modern periodic table based? – Atomic Number
  • The common name of a chemical compound containing the NaOH formula is? – Caustic Soda
  • With which chemical human blood is kept in blood cells? – Sodium Nitrate and Dextrate
  • Magnesium metal is extracted mainly from which ore? – Carnallite
  • Aluminum is obtained by the electrolysis of dissolved pure Al2O3 in – Cryolite
  • Which bleaching powder is prepared by passing? – Chlorine from extinguished lime
  • Which is the second most found burning metal in the womb of the earth? – Iron
  • Which metal is added to convert iron into steel? – Nickel

  • Which important metals are used along with iron to make stainless steel? – Chromium
  • By applying which substance does blood stop flowing from the cut off place? – Ferric Chloride
  • Hara Thotha or Hara Case is the nickname of which chemical substance? – Ferrous Sulfate
  • Which disease is caused by the increase of copper content in the human body? – Wilson's Disease
  • Which chemical is used to destroy algae in water tanks? – Copper sulphate
  • Zinc ore is extracted mainly in which ore? – Zinc Bland
  • Javar mines in Rajasthan are famous for which mineral? – Zinc
  • Which is used as Ddantakanashi (Rodentnashi)? – Zinc Phosphide
  • Silver ore is extracted mainly from which ore? – Argentite
  • The cyanide method is used for the extraction of – Silver
  • Which chemical is used in conducting artificial rainfall? – Silver Iodide
  • What is the percentage of pure gold in 18 carat mixed gold? – 75%
  • What gas is filled in a normal tubelight (fluorescence bulb)? – Mercury Vapor with Argon
  • Mercury is placed in which metal vessel? – Iron
  • Lead is extracted mainly from which ore? – Galana
  • Which metal is used in accumulator batteries? – Lead
  • Which metal is as strong as steel, but half of it in weight? – Titanium
  • Which metal is used as the filament of light bulbs? – Tungsten
  • 'Degana' in Rajasthan is famous for whose production? – Tungsten
  • Which metal has such a low melting point that it melts in the hand? – Gallium
  • Which metal is used as a semiconductor transistor? Germanium
  • What is used as a neutron controller in nuclear reactors? – Cadmium or Boran
  • Which element produces protection resistance in steel? – Nickel
  • Which volume is increased to provide hardness in steel? – Manganese
  • Which radioactive element rays are used in the treatment of cancer? – Cobalt
  • Does fuel work in a nuclear reactor? – Uranium
  • Which element is used to obtain nuclear energy? – Uranium
  • Who was used in the atomic bomb dropped by the United States on Nagasaki? – Plutonium
  • Which color is caused by the presence of green color in fireworks? – Barium
  • Which element is used in the manufacture of fertilizers? – Potassium

  • The smell of onion–garlic is due to the presence of which element? – Potassium
  • A radioactive element with large reserves found in India? – Thorium
  • Which metal is bauxite ore to obtain? – Aluminum
  • How are rubies and sapphires chemically known? – Aluminum Oxide
  • Which chemical compound is used in photography? – Silver Bromide
  • Which alloy is used to make a tapi component for an electric instrument? – Nichrome
  • What elements are included in stainless steel? – Iron, Chromium and Carbon
  • What chemical substance is coated on audio and video tapes? – Iron Oxide
  • Which metal is used to heat an electric iron? – Nichrome
  • Which metal alloy is used to make parts in airplanes and railway coaches? – Aluminum
  • Which element was first produced artificially? – Plutonium
  • What is ultimately produced as a result of radioactive electrification of uranium? – Lead
  • In whose presence does brass become colorless in air? – Hydrogen Sulfide
  • The red color of ruby ​​is due to the presence of – Chromium Oxide
  • What is responsible for making pyrex glass more efficient? – Borax
  • What type of glass is used to make glass reinforced plastic? – Pyrex Glass
  • Water is a good solvent. Due to whose high is it? – Ultraviolet Constants of Water
  • About what percentage of the world's land is water? – 71%
  • By what process can pure water be obtained from seawater? – By Distillation
  • What is the function of heavy water in a nuclear reactor? – Reducing neutron speed
  • By which element are most compounds made with hydrogen? – Carbon
  • Which substances are used as lubricants in heavy machines? – Graphite
  • The use of diamond as a jewel depends on its quality. – Refractive Index
  • Due to whose presence lime water becomes milky when kept in the air? – Carbon Dioxide
  • What gas is added to the beer before it is stored? – CO2
  • Which of the gases is present under pressure in soft drinks? – CO2
  • Which of the following groups of gases contributes to the 'green house effect'? – Carbon Monoxide
  • What is commonly used in making transistors? – Silicon
  • Which is the main component used in making different types of glass? – Silica
  • In whose atmosphere is the magnesium coil placed in the flash bulbs? – Nitrogen

  • Which element is required in maximum quantity by growing plants? – Nitrogen
  • Which gas is produced when lightning flashes in the sky? – NO
  • Which one of the following gases is produced at the time of formation of photomagnetic fog? – Nitrogen Oxide
  • What is produced on the industrial scale by Haber method? – Ammonia
  • Which catalyst (bunsanlage) is used in the production of ammonia by Haber method? – Iron
  • What gases mixtures do divers use to breathe? – Oxygen and Helium
  • Which gas absorbs ultraviolet rays in the atmosphere? – Ozone
  • Which form is obtained by the reaction of sugars and sulfuric acid? – Carbon
  • Which halogen element combines with gynan to form maximum compounds? – Fluorine
  • Which halogen member is used as a disinfectant? – Chlorine
  • Which gas is used to fill the tires of aircraft? – Helium
  • Except helium, how many electrons are in the outer orbit of all inert gases? – 18
  • To extend the life of an electric bulb it is usually filled with – Argon

Chemistry Questions and Solved Examples

Q.1: The molecules of which gas has the highest speed?
A. N2 at 1,027°C
B. CH4 at 300 K
C. O2 at 0°C
D. H2 at -73°C
Answer: D. H2 at -73°C
Explanation: According to kinetic theory of gases, Root Mean Square (RMS) velocity of a gas = square root of 3RT/M. Therefore speed of a gas is proportional to square root of T/M where T is temp in kelvin and M is molar mass. Calculating this value we get hydrogen has highest speed.

Q.2: The law which states that the amount of gas dissolved in a liquid is proportional to its partial pressure is:
A. Dalton's law
B. Henry's law
C. Gay Lussac's law
D. Raoult's law
Answer: B. Henry's law
Explanation: In physical chemistry, Henry's law is a gas law that states that the amount of dissolved gas in a liquid is proportional to its partial pressure above the liquid. The proportionality factor is called Henry's law constant.

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Q.3: The nuclear particles which are assumed to hold the nucleons together are:
A. Electrons
B. Positrons
C. Neutrons
D. Mesons
Answer: D. Mesons
Explanation: Mesons – A subatomic particle that is intermediate in mass between an electron and a proton and transmits the strong interaction that binds nucleons together in the atomic nucleus.

Q.4: The nucleus of a hydrogen atom consists of:
A. 1 proton + 2 neutron
B. 1 proton only
C. 1 neutron only
D. 1 electron only
Answer: B. 1 proton only
Explanation: It's parts are a single negatively-charged electron that circles a single positively-charged nucleus of the hydrogen atom. The nucleus of hydrogen consists of only a single proton (in the case of hydrogen-1 or protium), or it may also include one or more neutrons (giving deuterium, tritium, and other isotopes).

Q.5: The heat required to raise the temperature of body by 1 K is called:
A. Thermal Capacity
B. Specific Heat
C. Water Equivalent
D. None of the above
Answer: A. Thermal Capacity
Explanation: Thermal Capacity: The quantity of heat necessary to produce a unit change of temperature in a unit mass of a substance. In SI, the unit is to the joule per kilogram kelvin (J/kg-K).

Q.6: The inexpensive and commonly used variety of glass is called soda glass. It is called so because:
A. Was used initially for making bottles of Soda (Carbonated drink)
B. Was initially used for storing Sodium Carbonate
C. Is made using Soda (Sodium Carbonate)
D. Is made using Soda Lime
Answer: C. Is made using soda (Sodium Carbonate)
Explanation: Soda–lime glass, also called soda–lime–silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items. Soda–lime glass accounts for about 90% of manufactured glass.
Soda–lime glass is relatively inexpensive, chemically stable, reasonably hard, and extremely workable. Because it can be resoftened and remelted numerous times, it is ideal for glass recycling.
- It is used in preference to chemically-pure silica, which is silicon dioxide (SiO2), otherwise known as fused quartz.
- Whereas pure silica has excellent resistance to thermal shock, being able to survive immersion in water while red hot, its high melting temperature (1723 °C) and viscosity make it difficult to work with.
- Other substances are therefore added to simplify processing. One is the 'soda', or sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which lowers the glass-transition temperature. However, the soda makes the glass water-soluble, which is usually undesirable.
- To provide for better chemical durability, the 'lime' is also added. This is calcium oxide (CaO), generally obtained from limestone.
- In addition, magnesium oxide (MgO) and alumina, which is aluminium oxide (Al2O3), contribute to the durability. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight.

Q.7: Microwave oven acts on the principle of:
A. Transferring electrons from lower to higher energy levels in water molecule
B. Giving rotational energy to water molecules
C. Giving vibrational energy to water molecules
D. Giving translational energy to water molecules
Answer: B. Giving rotational energy to water molecules
Explanation: A microwave oven uses microwaves, which are basically radio waves, to cook food. The commonly used frequency is roughly 2,500 MHz (2.5 GHz).
- Radio waves in this frequency range are absorbed by water, fats and sugars. When absorbed, they are converted directly into heat.
- The radio waves penetrate the food and excite water and fat molecules pretty much evenly throughout the food, unlike a conventional oven, where heat migrates toward the interior by conduction.
- In a microwave oven, there is heat everywhere all at once because the molecules are all excited together.

Q.8: The ratio of work done by an ideal monoatomic gas to the heat supplied to it in an isobaric process is:
A. 3:5
B. 2:3
C. 3:2
D. 2:5
Answer: D. 2:5
Explanation: In case of an isobaric thermodynamical process:
H = nCpΔT
Say, the initial and final parameters are: n, V1, P, T1 and n, V2, P, T2.
∴ PV1 = nRT1
PV2 = nRT2
Or, P(V2−V1) = nR(T2−T1)
W = nR(T2−T1)
H = nCp(T2−T1)
So, W/H = R/Cp = 2/5

Q.9: The metal used to recover copper from a solution of copper sulphate is:
A. Ag
B. Hg
C. Fe
D. Na
Answer: C. Fe
Explanation: Fe is more reactive and has more reducing power than copper, so it reduces CuSO4 to copper. The chemical reaction of changing iron and copper sulphate to form iron sulphate and copper:
Fe + CuSO4 → FeSO4 + Cu

Q.10: The main buffer system of the human blood is:
A. H2CO3 – HCO3-
B. H2CO3 – CO3-2
Answer: A. H2CO3 – HCO3-
Explanation: Human blood contains a buffer of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate anion (HCO3-) in order to maintain blood pH between 7.35 and 7.45, as a value higher than 7.8 or lower than 6.8 can lead to death.

Q.11: The most commonly used bleaching agent is:
A. Alcohol
B. Carbon Dioxide
C. Chlorine
D. Sodium Chlorine
Answer: C. Chlorine
Explanation: Chlorine is the most commonly used bleaching agent.
Note: Bleaching agents are compounds which are used to remove color from substances such as textiles. A bleaching agent is a material that lightens or whitens a substrate through the chemical reaction. The bleaching reactions usually involve oxidative or reductive processes that degrade color systems.

Q.12: The most abundant rare gas in the atmosphere is:
A. He
B. Ne
C. Ar
D. Xe
Answer: C. Argon
Explanation: Argon's elemental symbol is Ar, and it is the most abundant noble gas in the atmosphere. There's so much Argon in the atmosphere because it was produced by a long-lived radioactive isotope of potassium in the earth's crust and released over geologic time.

List of Nobel Prize Winners in Chemistry from 2012 – 2024

Year Laureate Country Rationale
2012 Robert Lefkowitz United States for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors
Brian Kobilka United States
2013 Martin Karplus United States, Austria for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems
Michael Levitt United States, United Kingdom, Israel
Arieh Warshel United States, Israel
2014 Eric Betzig United States for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy
Stefan W. Hell Germany, Romania
William E. Moerner United States
2015 Tomas Lindahl United Kingdom for mechanistic studies of DNA repair
Paul L. Modrich United States
Aziz Sancar United States, Turkey
2016 Jean-Pierre Sauvage France for the design and synthesis of molecular machines
Fraser Stoddart United Kingdom, United States
Ben Feringa Netherlands
2017 Jacques Dubochet Switzerland for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution
Joachim Frank Germany, United States
Richard Henderson United Kingdom
2018 Frances Arnold United States for the directed evolution of enzymes
George Smith United States for the phage display of peptides and antibodies
Sir Gregory Winter United Kingdom
2019 John B. Goodenough United States for the development of lithium-ion batteries
M. Stanley Whittingham United Kingdom, United States
Akira Yoshino Japan
2020 Emmanuelle Charpentier France for the development of a method for genome editing
Jennifer A. Doudna United States
2021 Benjamin List Germany for the development of asymmetric organocatalysis
David MacMillan United Kingdom, United States
2023 Carolyn R. Bertozzi United States for the development of click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry
Morten Meldal Denmark
K. Barry Sharpless United States